Quantitative vs Qualitative Research Methodologies

Respond to two posts. First post Quantitative research originates from the positivist paradigm (Keele, 2012). Some main tenets of the positivist worldview are that a single reality exists and can be measured, cause and effect relationships can be tested, and research can be conducted objectively (Keele, 2012).

According to Polit and Beck (2016), positivism was the paradigm that dominated nursing research for decades. Quantitative research is a “formal, objective, deductive approach to problem-solving” (Keele, 2012, p. 35).

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Quantitative vs Qualitative Research Methodologies
From $8/Page
Order Essay

Other characteristics of quantitative research include numbers and statistical analyses, theory testing, and a concise and narrow focus (Keele, 2012).

The four quantitative designs are descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental (Keele, 2012).

According to Keele (2012), “descriptive studies are designed to gain more information about characteristics of a topic of interest” and “is most appropriate when very little research is available on the topic” (p. 38). Correlational designs are used to study relationships between variables (Keele, 2012).

Quasi-experimental designs are used to examine causality, but lack randomization of the sample (Keele, 2012). Experimental designs, also known as randomized control trials (RCTs), are the “gold standard for research and evidence-based nursing practice” (Keele, 2012, p. 41).

Experimental designs must include randomization of samples, control of treatment/intervention, and treatment and control groups (Keele, 2012). Quantitative research is considered a hard science (Keele, 2012). 

Qualitative research originates from the naturalist paradigm (Keele, 2012). A main tenet of the naturalist worldview is that “there are multiple realities that are continually changing, which make it very difficult to measure” (Keele, 2012, p. 35).

Other assumptions of the naturalist worldview are that research is subjective, findings cannot be generalized beyond the study sample, and cause and effect relationships can not be tested (Keele, 2012).

Qualitative research is an “informal, subjective, inductive approach to problem-solving” (Keele, 2012, p. 35).

Other characteristics of qualitative research include a complex and broad focus, theory development, words and narrative as the basis of analysis, and meaning and discovery as the basis of knowing (Keele, 2012).

The most common qualitative designs are phenomenology, grounded theory, and ethnography. Phenomenology is used to explore everyday life experiences (Keele, 2012).

Grounded theory is utilized to develop theory (Keele, 2012). Ethnography focuses on the culture of a group of people (Keele, 2012).

Qualitative research is considered a soft science (Keele, 2012)   second post is Quantitative research developed from the positivism nursing paradigm (Polit & Beck, 2016, p. 9). “Adherents of positivism assume that nature is basically ordered and regular and that reality exists independent of human observation” (Polit & Beck, 2016, p. 9).

Furthermore, “the positivists’ scientific approach involves using orderly, disciplined procedures with tight controls of the research situation to test hunches about the phenomena being studied” (Polit & Beck, 2016, p. 9).

Quantitative researchers use a systematic approach, implementing control strategies in order to gather empirical evidence, or objective data obtained via the senses (Polit & Beck, 2016, p. 11).

Keele (2012) further defines quantitative research as an objective process utilizing deductive reasoning and statistical analysis to test theories concerning observed cause and effect relationships in a single reality (p. 36). There are four types of quantitative research design, descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental (Keele, 2012, p. 38).

Each are preceded by a level of research questions (Dickoff & James, 1968, as cited in Keele, 2012, p. 38). Level one questions consist of factor-isolating questions, which are best answered using descriptive studies (Keele, 2012, p. 38).

“Descriptive studies are designed to gain more information about characteristics of a topic of interest” (Keele, 2012, p. 38). Level two, or factor-relating questions, use correlational study designs to answer questions about relationships between factors (Keele, 2012, p. 39).

Furthermore, situation-relating questions are categorized into level three (Keele, 2012, p. 40).

“These types of questions are best answered through quasi-experimental designs where the researcher is evaluating some intervention” (Keele, 2012, p. 40). Lastly, “situation-producing researchable questions are the highest level of inquiry, requiring the most control by the researcher” (Keele, 2012, p. 41).

Therefore, a more structured and regulated research design is needed. “Often called a randomized control trial (RCT), and experimental research design is the “gold standard” for research and evidence-based nursing practice” (Keele, 2012, p. 41).

No matter what quantitative research design is used, both external and internal validity are needed to measure the success of a study (Keele, 2012, p. 42). “Internal validity refers to whether or not the manipulation of the independent variable really makes a significant difference on the dependent variable” (Keele, 2012, p. 42).

Whereas, external validity refers to how well the study’s findings can be generalized and applied to a larger population (Keele, 2012, p. 42).           

Qualitative research was birthed out of the constructivist paradigm (Polit & Beck, 2016, p. 12). “Researchers in constructivist traditions emphasize the inherent complexity of humans, their ability to shape and create their own experiences, and the idea that truth is a composite of realities” (Polit & Beck, 2016, p. 12).

As a result, qualitative research entails the gathering of narratives and subjective data in order to understand the human experience (Polit & Beck, 2016, p. 12). This method of research is contrasting with that of quantitative research, which utilizes statistical analysis and objective data (Keele, 2012, p. 36). Keele (2012) discusses three of the most widely used qualitative designs, ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory (p. 44).

“Ethnographies focus on studying the culture of a group of people” (Keele, 2012, p. 47).

“They involve the description and interpretation of that culture’s behavior” (Keele, 2012, p. 47). Additionally, “phenomenology is an approach to exploring people’s everyday life experiences” (Keele, 2012, p. 46). Finally, grounded theory uncovers patterns that facilitate further data collection and apply meaning to a study’s outcomes (Keele, 2012, p. 47).

Furthermore, like internal and external validity in quantitative research, the success of a qualitative study is measured by truth-value and applicability. “To achieve truth-value, a qualitative study must present a faithful description or interpretation of the human experience so that people having that experience can identify with it” (Keele, 2012, p. 49). A qualitative study’s applicability refers to its generalizability and how well it can be applied to larger sample size, similar to external validity (Keele, 2012, p. 49).

Essay Writer 4me
Order NOW For A 10% Discount!
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

Customer Support 24/7

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Services

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission and Business Papers

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Editing

Editing and Proofreading

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Coursework

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.