Chapter 61 Learning Objectives Assignment/Caring for Clients Requiring Orthopedic Treatment Differentiate types of casts. Discuss the nursing management for a client with a cast. State the reasons for using splints or braces. Identify the principles for maintaining traction and describe nursing care for the client in traction. Differentiate between closed reduction and open reduction and between internal fixation and external fixation. Describe nursing care for the client with a fracture reduction. Identify the reasons for performing orthopedic surgery. Discuss the nursing management for a client undergoing orthopedic surgery. Compare minimally invasive joint replacement surgery with conventional joint replacement surgery. Describe the positioning precautions after a conventional total hip replacement. Explain the nursing needs of the client undergoing total knee replacement. Discuss amputation, including reasons it may be performed and appropriate nursing management of the client. Chapter 62 Learning Objectives Assignment/Caring for Clients With Traumatic Musculoskeletal Injuries Differentiate strains, contusions, and sprains. Define joint dislocations. Discuss the nursing management of various types of sports or work-related injuries. Identify the stages of bone healing after a fracture. Describe the signs and symptoms of a fracture. Explain the nursing management for clients with various types of fractures. Discuss methods used to prevent complications associated with fractures. Discuss potential complications associated with a fractured hip. Chapter 63 Learning Objectives Assignment/Caring for Clients With Orthopedic and Connective Tissue Disorders Explain the difference between rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis). Describe nursing management of clients with arthritis. Summarize the clinical manifestations of temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Define the pathophysiology of gout, fibromyalgia, bursitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Delineate the nursing care required for clients with gout, fibromyalgia, bursitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Discuss the multisystem involvement associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Identify the causes of osteomyelitis. Explain the inflammatory process associated with Lyme disease. Identify risk factors for development of osteoporosis. Distinguish the pathophysiology of osteomalacia and Paget’s disease. Differentiate between bunions and hammer toe. Discuss characteristics of benign and malignant bone tumors. Learning Objectives, Chapter 36, Introduction to the Nervous System Name the two anatomic divisions of the nervous system. Name the three parts of the brain. List the four lobes of the cerebrum. Give two functions of the spinal cord. Name and describe the function of the two parts of the autonomic nervous system. Describe the methods used to assess motor and sensory function. List six diagnostic procedures performed to detect neurologic disorders. Discuss the nursing management of the client undergoing neurologic diagnostic testing. Learning Objectives, Chapter 37, Caring for Clients With Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Name the three components within the cranium and explain the Monro–Kellie hypothesis. Discuss at least four signs and symptoms and nursing care of the client with increased intracranial pressure. Name four infectious or inflammatory diseases that affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Discuss three neuromuscular disorders, common related problems, and nursing management. Discuss the nursing management of clients with a cranial nerve disorder. List the signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Discuss the purpose of drug therapy and drugs commonly prescribed for Parkinson’s disease. Describe signs and symptoms of Huntington’s disease and related nursing management. Discuss the pathophysiology of seizure disorders and different types of seizures. Discuss the nursing management of clients with seizure disorders. Discuss the nursing management of clients with brain tumors. Learning Objectives, Chapter 38, Caring for Clients With Cerebrovascular Disorders Identify three common types of headaches and their characteristics. List nursing techniques that supplement drug therapy in reducing or relieving headaches. Explain the cause and significance of a transient ischemic attack. Discuss medical and surgical techniques used to reduce the potential for a cerebrovascular accident. Differentiate between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Identify five manifestations of a cerebrovascular accident; discuss those that are unique to right-sided and left-sided infarctions. Identify at least five nursing diagnoses common to the care of a client with a cerebrovascular accident and interventions for them. Describe a cerebral aneurysm and the danger it presents. Discuss appropriate nursing interventions when caring for a client with a cerebral aneurysm. Chapter 39, Caring for Clients With Head and Spinal Cord Trauma Differentiate a concussion from a contusion. Explain the cause and effects of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Identify differences between epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hematomas. Discuss the nursing management of a client with a head injury. Discuss the nursing management of a client undergoing intracranial surgery. Explain spinal shock, listing four symptoms. Discuss autonomic dysreflexia and at least five manifestations. List possible long-term complications of spinal cord injury. Describe the nursing management of a client with a spinal cord injury. Identify the anatomic difference between intramedullary and extramedullary spinal nerve root compression. Learning Objectives, Chapter 40, Caring for Clients With Neurologic Deficits Define neurologic deficit. Describe the three phases of a neurologic deficit. Give the primary aims of medical treatment of a neurologic deficit. Name six members of the health care team involved with the management of a client with a neurologic deficit. Describe nursing management of a client with a neurologic deficit.
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